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Classical Unit 1: Early Violin Unit 2: Baroque Musical Period Unit 3: Classical Musical Period Unit 4: Romantic Musical Period Unit 5: 20th Century Musical PeriodUnit 6: Non Traditional



[1] Sadie, Stanley and Hicks, Anthony. "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. ed. Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan, 1980: 12:680-752.

[2] Einstein, Alfred. Mozart: His Character, His Work. London: Oxford University Press, 1961:280.

[3] Bashford, Christina. "Chamber Music," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 11 June 2008) <>

[4] Brown, Maurice J. E. and Sams, Eric. "Franz Schubert," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. ed. Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan, 1980. 16:752-811.

[5] Webster, James and Feder, Georg. "(Franz) Joseph Haydn," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 4 June 2008) <>

[6] Thomas Mee Pattison (1845-1936), the composer of the original Maidstone Violin Tutor (London, c. 1897), was a musical advisor to the London-based J. G. Murdoch & Co., music publishing house and instrument manufacturer. Pattison enlisted the support of his company to promote violin class instruction for British schoolchildren by providing all of the supplies needed: violins, teaching materials, and teachers, for one inclusive, inexpensive price. The Maidstone method of violin class instruction was named in honor of the first group violin class to experiment with this approach: the All Saints' National School in Maidstone, England (see "The Original Maidstone Class," The Young Musician. London: National Union of School Orchestras. Jan/Feb. 1910: 4). At the height of the Maidstone School Orchestra (MSOA) classes popularity, 400,000 British schoolchildren, one in ten of the British state school population, participated in Maidstone School Orchestra classes (see School Music Review Vol. 26/182: 21). In the United States, this early approach to group violin instruction is sometimes known as the Maidstone Movement, and American music educators were made aware of the Maidstone Movement and MSOA classes through the conference reports of individuals who had observed MSOA classes in person. One individual in particular was influential in disseminating the MSOA concept of group string classes: Albert G. Mitchell, one of the pioneers in American public school instrumental classes. Mitchell spent a year in England studying the methodology used by MSOA classes, and upon his return, patterned his 1911 Boston public school violin classes directly after MSOA classes. Mitchell's violin classes were soon included in the regular school curriculum, and he expanded his group instrumental classes to other instruments. Numerous music education historians in the United States regard the British Maidstone Movement as a significant event in the history of school instrumental music in the United States, and T. Mee Pattison was a key individual in beginning this widespread and influential British approach to group violin instruction. For more information, see: Deverich, Robin K. "The Maidstone Movement—Influential British Precursor of American Public School Instrumental Classes," Journal of Research in Music Education.  Spring 1987: 39-55.

[7] Webster, James and Feder, Georg. "(Franz) Joseph Haydn," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 4 June 2008) <>

[8] Griesinger, Georg August.  Biographical Notes of Joseph Haydn. translated by Vernon Gotwals, in Haydn Two Contemporary Portraits. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1968:33.

[9] Beethoven, Ludwig van. Beethoven's letters (1790-1826). translated by Lady Wallace. Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Press, 1970.

[10] Kerman, Joseph and Tyson, Alan. "Beethoven," Grove Music Online. (Accessed 12 June 2008) <>

[11] Galamian, Ivan. Principles of Violin Playing and Teaching. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1962: 85-86..

Fig. 3.1 Mozart with his father Leopold and his sister Marie Anne. Watercolor by Louis Carmontelle, 1764.

Fig. 3.2 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Posthumous oil painting by Barbara Krafft, 1819, under the supervision of Mozart’s sister, Maria Anna Walburga (“Nannerl”') Mozart.

Fig. 3.3 Salzburg from Maria Plain, Austro-Hungary. Between ca. 1890 and ca. 1900. Library of Congress: LC-DIG-ppmsc-09558. Lot 13417, no. 380.

Fig. 3.4 Franz Schubert. Oil painting by Wilhelm August Rieder, 1875.

Fig. 3.5 Schubertiade at the home of Josef von Spaun. Sepia drawing by Moritz von Schwind, 1895.

Fig. 3.6 (Franz) Joseph Haydn. Oil painting by Thomas Hardy, 1792.

Fig. 3.7 The Palace of Esterhaza. Painting by Bartolomeo Gaetano Pesci, 1780.

Fig. 3.8 Johann Peter Salomon. Engraving by Georg Siegmund Facius, or by Johann Gottlieb Facius, 1792. After a portrait by J. Hardy.

Fig. 3.9 Portrait of Beethoven. Photograph of a reproduction of a painting by Carl Jaeger (1833-1887). Library of Congress: LC-USZ62-29499.